Indicators of Resilience in Socio-ecological Production Landscapes and Seascapes (SEPLS): 2024 Edition

A tool to help local communities assess their socio-ecological resilience and develop a strategy for sustainable landscape management.

This publication aims to engage local communities in adaptive management of socio-ecological production landscapes and seascapes (SEPLS) — areas where people and nature interact closely and contribute to maintaining biodiversity and producing goods and services. It contains a set of 20 indicators to provide communities with a framework for discussing and analyzing socio-ecological processes essential for SEPLS resilience through a collaborative, community-based process. They include both qualitative and quantifiable indicators, but measurement is based on the observations, tallies, perceptions and experiences of the local communities. They are to be used flexibly and can be customized to reflect the circumstances of each particular landscape or seascape and its associated communities. 

While the indicators are primarily designed to be used by local communities, they have the potential to be valuable tools for others such as NGOs, development agencies and policymakers. The first set of indicators was developed in 2012 as a Collaborative Activity under the International Partnership for the Satoyama Initiative (IPSI) by UNU-IAS and the Alliance Bioversity International and CIAT. Over the past decade, the widespread adoption of these indicators has led to feedback highlighting the need for simplification to enhance accessibility and usability at the community level. The revision process for the 2024 edition included inputs from IPSI members and partners with extensive experience using the indicators, ensuring they are more user-friendly and inspire reflection.  

UNU-IAS welcomes feedback based on practical implementation challenges and case studies to improve future editions. To contribute, please email your input to 

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