Over 80 per cent of wastewater worldwide is not collected or treated. Although wastewater management has advanced significantly in large cities — which are the main producers and consumers of wastewater — centralised treatment plants are expensive to build, and costly to operate and maintain.
A low-cost, low-maintenance alternative to traditional wastewater treatment are decentralised wastewater treatment plants (d-WWTPs). These natural wastewater treatment systems can be tailor-made to suit local climatic conditions, aesthetic requirements, and water quality and usage. An example of a d-WWTP is constructed wetlands, which have been used extensively in sanitation and pollution control.
This project seeks to develop a methodology for optimal design and criteria of constructed wetlands. By analysing a properly designed and operated constructed wetlands, it will demonstrate how this low-tech alternative can collect and treat wastewater, provide sanitation, generate plant-sourced energy, create biodiversity shelters, and clean polluted sites.