To contribute to the Millennium Development Goals for ending poverty and hunger, and ensuring environmental sustainability, this project, launched in August 2014, supports capacity-building projects proposed and implemented by leading scientists (host scientists) who are engaged in research related to food security and environmental conservation (including forestry and fisheries) in developing countries, under the responsibility of a host institution. The initiative mainly focuses on capacity building through on-the-job training (OJT) for young researchers in developing countries (trainees), funded by the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries of Japan, and coordinated by UNU-IAS. The purpose is to increase agricultural productivity through innovation, strengthen research capacity, and build networks for cooperation among researchers, and ultimately contribute towards solving food security and environmental conservation problems in developing countries. Each supported project must include all of the following: 1.OJT for young researchers in developing countries to strengthen research capacity under a host scientist, 2.guidance for developing an action plan for technology dissemination and research activity to be implemented by the trainee after the OJT, and 3.follow-up guidance by the host scientist to the trainee in implementing the action plan after the OJT 28 applications from 16 countries were received for the previous OJCB project in 2013. The Selection Committee was convened on 29 August, 2013 at UNU in Tokyo, and 12 projects were selected. OJT and follow-up of the action plan implementation will be completed by 31 May 2014, with 31 young researchers engaged in research related to sustainable agriculture in developing countries to be trained under the project.