Among development targets set up by the Millennium Development Goals, the sanitation goal (Target 7c) and the target of reducing the proportion of urban population living in slums (Target 7d) are notoriously off track. The major problem is a significant gap between knowledge, ongoing community-based practice in the informal sphere, and formal policy making and implementation at various governance levels. This project aims to explore possibilities to fill the gap by compiling a variety of research and practical experiences in total sanitation in Nairobi slums in Kenya. The project pays particular attention to the practice of ‘total sanitation’ since water, sanitation, health, and socioeconomic development should be managed within a single policy framework, whereas it has been variously dealt with by the non-state actors in the absence of such a framework. Specifically, the project proposes a workshop: Urban Governance for Total Sanitation: Looking to Transformative Approaches assess ongoing upgrading and innovative project experiences. The workshop produces written outputs that indicate different possibilities for the informal-formal linkages and ultimately sustainable urban development.