Global inequality has been falling in the last quarter century. However, this trend appears to have been driven entirely by convergence in GDP per capita across nations. Inequality within countries remained roughly constant in the 1990s, and has been rising since 2000. This increase in average within-country inequality arises from a very heterogeneous picture across countries and regions. This UNU-WIDER project will study inequality in India, South Africa, and Mexico. It is part of a broader international project called ‘Inequality in the Giants’ designed to shed light on a set of new questions of in between-country and within-country inequalities, by generating integrated datasets and applying a consistent methodology to investigate the determinants of inequality dynamics in ten of the world’s largest economies: Brazil, China, France, India, Indonesia, Mexico, Russia, South Africa, the UK and the US. The UNU-WIDER component covers the work on India, Mexico, and South Africa.