This is a collection of studies to a) understand the behavioral responses to AIDS in affected households b) assess access to health care by marginalized groups. 1. Intrahousehold behavioural responses to HIV/AIDS and targeted interventions We will study how the severity of AIDS illness influences intrahousehold labour supply. Our focus on intrahousehold labour supply attempts to understand the association between AIDS illness as indicated by actual clinical and biomarker data and the labour supply responses by other household members. We will particularly focus on households with members receiving antiretroviral therapy. The study will be based on survey and clinical data collected in Zambia. 2. Widowhood and access to healthcare in Uganda. Widows and their children tend to be marginalized from social policy discourse and programmes. In today’s era of HIV/AIDS, the number of widow-headed households is increasing and their exclusion from health care systems is a policy concern. There is also a research gap on whether widows face challenges in seeking health care and are thus excluded from health systems. This study will determine the association between widowhood and access to health care in an HIV/AIDS stricken country, Uganda.