Traditional development aid is not fit for purpose, and is not equipped to deal with the increasingly complex challenges presented by emerging global trends. Commentators are increasingly making the observation that a ‘Beyond Aid’ approach is needed for development cooperation. Exploring new models of development cooperation is a good starting point for this, in order to move away from a binary North/South approach to cooperation and embrace a wider spectrum of actors. The United Nations requires a more robust intellectual framework to understand: a. What forms of cooperation exist beyond the traditional aid paradigms? What new forms of cooperation are emerging? How are these forms changing and evolving in response to new global power dynamics, new global threats, such as climate change, and globalization more broadly. b. What role do Member States want the UN to play in supporting existing and emerging models of cooperation, with a particular focus on South-South Cooperation? What capacities does this require? c. Is the current role that the UN plays in supporting existing and emerging models of cooperation, particularly between countries in the ‘South’, sufficient? If not, should the UN do more and, if so, how? d. How can the UN work with new forms of cooperation to help it achieve its own tasks? UNU-CPR was commissioned to write a series of papers around South-South cooperation and other new/emerging development modalities, exploring the challenges that these represent for the UN and the opportunities that may emerge.