Since 2008, for the first time in human history, more than half of the global population lives in cities. Urbanisation is currently one of the most powerful transformation processes on our planet. Megacities are an extreme product of this development posing new challenges to and opening unique opportunities for mankind. After providing a brief overview on the global urbanisation process, this policy brief introduces vulnerability and resilience as concepts that allow for new perspectives on megacities. These perspectives are “the global and the local”, “the formal and the informal” and “the social and the ecological”. The Megacity Resilience Framework that is introduced captures these perspectives and highlights further research desiderata. The paper concludes with policy recommendations to increase resilience and sustainability of megacities.