Clean water is essential to human survival, yet it is increasingly scarce. Despite pressures on this crucial resource, people often have little or no opportunity to participate in watershed decisions that affect them, particularly when they live along international watercourses. The United Nations has identified the rising demand for water as one of four major factors that will threaten human and ecological health for at least a generation.
Over the coming decade, governments throughout the world will struggle to manage water in ways that are efficient, equitable, and environmentally sound. Whether these efforts succeed may turn, in large part, on providing the public with a voice in watershed management decisions that directly affect them. Public involvement holds the promise of improving the management of international watercourses and reducing the potential for conflict over water issues.
This volume examines the experiences in many watercourses around the world, lessons learned, and areas for further development. Drawing upon papers presented at a symposium on “Improving Public Participation and Governance in International Watershed Management” Eco-sponsored by the Environmental Law Institute, United Nations University, and other institutions, the chapters identify some of the considerations – linguistic, political, legal, traditional and cultural, geographic, and institutional – that should be considered when extending and adapting the approaches to other watersheds.
Carl Bruch is a Senior Attorney of the Environmental Law Institute in Washington, D.C. Libor Jansky is a Senior Academic Programme Officer in the Environment and Sustainable Development Programme at the United Nations University, Tokyo. Mikiyasu Nakayama is a Professor of the Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, the University of Tokyo, Tokyo. Kazimierz A. Salewicz is a Systems Analyst specializing in Decision Support System and water resources management in international river basins. He lives and works in Vienna.
ContentsFrom Theory to Practice: An Overview of Approaches for Involving the Public in International Watershed ManagementPart I: Theoretical Frameworks o Evolution of Public Involvement in International Watercourse Management Transboundary Ecosystem Governance: Beyond Sovereignty? Implications of the Information Society on Participatory GovernancePart II: Experiences from International Watersheds Public Participation in the Management of the Danube River – Necessary but Neglected Citizens Working across National Borders: The Experience in the Northern American Great Lakes Public Participation in Watershed Management in Theory and Practice: A Mekong River Basin Perspective Public Participation in Southern African Watercourses Public Involvement in Water Resource Management Within the Okavango River BasinPart III: International Institutions Access to Information, Public Participation, and Conflict Resolution at the World Bank Improving Governance and Public Participation in International Watercourse Management: Experience of the African Development Bank in the Senegal River Basin A North American Toolbox for Public Involvement in International Watershed IssuesPart IV: Lessons from Domestic Watercourses Improving Sustainable Management of Kenyan Fisheries Resources through Public Participation Public Participation in a Multijurisdictional Resource Recovery: Lessons from the Chesapeake Bay Program Chesapeake Bay Protection: Business in the Open A Cooperative Process for PCB TMDL Development in the Delaware Estuary Public Participation in the Resettlement Process of Dam Construction Projects: A Post-Project Survey of Saguling and Cirata Dams in IndonesiaPart V: Emerging Tools Internet-Based Tools for Disseminating Information and Promoting Public Participation in International Watercourse Management Capabilities and Limitations of Decision Support Systems in Facilitating Access to Information Sketches from Life: Adaptive Ecosystem Management and Public Learning The Colorado River through the Grand Canyon Public Participation in the Development of Guidelines for Regional Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) of Transboundary Aquatic Ecosystems of East Africa Access to Justice through the Central American Water TribunalConclusionContributorsCarl Bruch Libor Jansky Mikiyasu Nakayama Kazimierz A. SalewiczAngela Z. Cassar Bradley C. Karkkainen Hans van Ginkel Ruth Greenspan Bell John Jackson Prachoom Chomchai Michael Kidd Nevil Quinn Peter Ashton Marian Neal Charles E. Di Leva Aboubacar Fall Geoffrey Garver Nancy Gitonga Roy A. Hoagland Rebecca Hanmer Tomlinson Fort III John M. Volkman Mary Orton George Michael Sikoyo Juan Miguel Picolotti Kristin L. Crane