Peter Sale

Assistant Director

  • Peter Sale
    175 Longwood Road South, Suite 204, Hamilton Ontario L8P 0A1 Canada
    +1 905 667-5511

    Biographical Statement

    Professor Peter Sale is a marine ecologist with over 40 years experience in tropical coastal ecosystems, particularly coral reefs. Prior to joining the UNU Institute for Water, Environment and Health (UNU-INWEH), he was a faculty member at the University of Sydney, Australia (1968-1987), University of New Hampshire, USA (1988-1993) and University of Windsor, Canada (1994-2006). His work has focused primarily on reef fish ecology, most recently on aspects of juvenile ecology, recruitment and connectivity. He has done research in Hawaii, Australia, the Caribbean and the Middle East, and visited reefs in many places in between. He has successfully used his fundamental science research to develop and guide projects in international development and sustainable coastal marine management in the Caribbean and the Indo-Pacific. His laboratory has produced over 200 technical publications and he has edited three books dealing with marine ecology. Dr. Sale currently leads the Connectivity programme within the Coral Reef Targeted Research Project as well as Coastal Zone Management in the Arabian Gulf. He is also Professor Emeritus, University of Windsor.

  • Peer-reviewed Books

    • Sale, Peter F., 2011. Our Dying Planet. An ecologist’s view of the crisis we face. University of California Press, Berkeley. (release scheduled for September 2011)

    Peer-reviewed Journal Articles

    • Mumby, P.J., R. Iglesias-Prieto, A.J Hooten, P.F. Sale, O. Hoegh-Guldberg, A.J. Edwards, C.D. Harvell, E.D. Gomez, N. Knowlton, M.E. Hatziolos, M.S. Kyewalyanga, and N. Muthiga, 2011. Revisiting climate thresholds and ecosystem collapse. Frontiers in Ecology 9: 94-96.
      Burt, John, Aaron Bartholomew, and Peter F. Sale, 2011. Benthic development on large-scale engineered reefs: a comparison of communities among breakwaters of different age and natural reefs. Ecological Engineering 37: 191-198.
    • Sale, Peter F., David A. Feary, John A. Burt, Andrew G. Bauman, Geórgenes H. Cavalcante, Kenneth G. Drouillard, Björn Kjerfve, Elise Marquis, Charles G. Trick, Paolo Usseglio, Hanneke Van Lavieren, 2011. The Growing Need for Sustainable Ecological Management of Marine Communities of the Persian Gulf. Ambio 40: 4-17. DOI 10.1007/s13280-010-0092-6
    • Feary, D.A., J.A. Burt, A.G. Bauman, P. Usseglio, P.F. Sale, G.H. Cavalcante, 2010. Fish communities on the world’s warmest reefs: what can they tell us about the effects of climate change in the future? Journal of Fish Biology 77: 1931-1947. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8649.2010.02777.x
    • Burt, John, David Feary, Paolo Usseglio, Andrew Bauman and Peter F Sale, 2010. The influence of wave exposure on coral community development on man-made breakwater reefs, with a comparison to a natural reef. Bulletin of Marine Science 86: 839-859.
    • Burt, John, Aaron Bartholomew, Andrew Bauman, Abdulla Saif, and Peter F. Sale, 2009. Coral recruitment and early benthic community development on several materials used in the construction of artificial reefs and breakwaters. J. Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 373: 72-78.
      Burt, J, Bartholomew, A, Usseglio, P, Bauman, A, and P.F. Sale, 2009. Are artificial reefs surrogates of natural reefs for corals and fish in Dubai, United Arab Emirates? Coral Reefs 28:663-675.
    • Hepburn, R.I., P.F. Sale, B. Dixon and Daniel D. Heath, 2009. Genetic structure of juvenile cohorts of bicolor damselfish (Stegastes partitus) along the Mesoamerican barrier reef: chaos through time. Coral Reefs 28: 277-288.
    • Jones, G.P., G.R. Russ, P.F. Sale and R.S. Steneck, 2009. Theme section on “Larval connectivity, resilience and the future of coral reefs”. Coral Reefs 28: 303-305.
    • Jones, G.P., G.R. Almany, G.R. Russ, P.F. Sale, R.S. Steneck, M.J.H. van Oppen and B.L. Willis, 2009. Larval retention and connectivity among populations of corals and reef fishes: history, advances and challenges. Coral Reefs 28: 307-325.
    • Steneck, R.S., C.B. Paris, S.N. Arnold, M.C. Ablan-Lagman, A.C. Alcala, M.J. Butler, L.J. McCook, G.R. Russ and P.F. Sale, 2009. Thinking and managing outside the box: coalescing connectivity networks to build region-wide resilience in coral reef ecosystems. Coral Reefs 28: 367-378.
    • McCook, L.J., G.R. Almany, M.L. Berumen, J.C. Day, A.L. Green, G.P. Jones, J.M. Leis, S. Planes, G.R. Russ, P.F. Sale and S.R. Thorrold, 2009. Management under uncertainty: guide-lines for incorporating connectivity into the protection of coral reefs. Coral Reefs 28: 353-366.
      Sale, Peter F., 2008. Management of coral reefs: Where we have gone wrong and what we can do about it. Marine Pollution Bulletin 56: 805-809.
    • Hoegh-Guldberg, O., P.J. Mumby, A.J. Hooten, R.S. Steneck, P. Greenfield, E. Gomez, D.R. Harvell, P.F. Sale, A.J. Edwards, K. Caldeira, N. Knowlton, C.M. Eakin, R. Iglesias-Prieto, N. Muthiga, R.H. Bradbury, A. Dubi, and M.E. Hatziolos, 2008. Coral adaptation in the face of climate change. Science 320: 315-316.
    • Hoegh-Guldberg, O., Mumby, P.J., Hooten, A. J., Steneck, R.S., Greenfield, P., Gomez, E., Harvell, D. R, Sale, P.F., Edwards, A.J., Caldeira, K., Knowlton, N., Eakin, C. M., Iglesias-Prieto, R., Muthiga, N., Bradbury, R.H., Dubi, A., and Hatziolos, M. E., 2007. The Carbon Crisis: Coral Reefs under Rapid Climate Change and Ocean Acidification. Science 318: 1737-1742.
      Sale, P.F., 2007. Parasites and passerines tell different tales. Conservation Biology 21: 281-282.
    • ritzer, J.P. and P.F. Sale (eds.) 2006. Marine Metapopulations, Academic Press, San Diego.
      Chittaro, P.M., Usseglio, P., Fryer, B.J. Sale, P.F. 2005. Using otolith microchemistry of Haemulon flavolineatum (French Grunt) to characterize mangroves and coral reefs throughout Turneffe Atoll, Belize: Difficulties at small spatial scales. Estuaries 28: 373-381.
      Chittaro, P.M., P. Usselio, and P.F. Sale, 2005. Variation in fish density, assemblage composition and relative rates of predation among mangrove, seagrass and coral reef habitats. Env. Biol. Fish. 72: 175-187.
    • KPlanes, S., R. Galzin, J.-P. Bablet, and P.F. Sale, 2005. Stability of coral reef fish assemblages impacted by nuclear tests. Ecology 86: 2578-2585.
    • Sale, P.F., Cowen, R.K., Danilowicz, B.S., Jones, G.P., Kritzer, J.P., Lindeman, K.C., Planes, S., Polunin, N.V.C., Russ, G.R., Sadovy, Y.J., and R. S. Steneck. 2005. Critical science gaps impede use of no-take fishery reserves. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 20: 74-80.
    • Sale, P.F., B.S. Danilowicz, P.J. Doherty and D.McB. Williams, 2005. The relation of microhabitat to variation in recruitment of young-of-year coral reef fishes. Bull. Mar. Sci. 76: 123-142.
    • Chittaro, P.M., B.J. Fryer, and P.F. Sale, 2004. Discrimination of French grunts (Haemulon flavolineatum, Desmarest, 1823) from mangrove and coral reef habitats using otolith microchemistry. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 308, 169-183.
    • Kritzer JP, and P.F. Sale, 2004. Metapopulation ecology in the sea: from Levins’ model to marine ecology and fisheries science. Fish and Fisheries 5: 131-140.
    • Sale, P. F. 2004. Connectivity, recruitment variation, and the structure of reef fish communities. Integr. Comp. Biol. 44: 390-399.
    • Chittaro, P.M., and P.F. Sale, 2003. Structure of patch-reef assemblages at St. Croix, US Virgin Islands, and One Tree Reef, Australia. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 249: 277-287.
    • Mora, C., P.M. Chittaro, P.F. Sale, J.P. Kritzer and S.A. Ludsin, 2003. Patterns and processes in reef fish diversity. Nature 421: 933-936.
    • Sale, Peter F., and Jacob P. Kritzer, 2003. Determining the extent and spatial scale of population connectivity: decapods and coral reef fishes compared. Fisheries Research 65: 153-172.
    • Sale, Peter F., and Stuart A. Ludsin, 2003. The Extent and Spatial Scale of Connectivity among Reef Fish Populations: Implications for Marine Protected Areas Designated for Fisheries Enhancement. Gulf and Caribbean Research 14: 119-128.
    • Danilowicz, B.S., N. Tolimieri and P.F. Sale, 2002. Meso-scale habitat features affect recruitment of reef fishes in St. Croix, US Virgin Islands. Bull. Mar. Sci. 69: 1223-1232.
    • Jones, K.M.M., D.G. Fitzgerald, and P.F. Sale, 2002. Comparative ecology of Marine Fish Communities, In: Hart, P.J.B., and J.R. Reynolds (eds.), Handbook of Fish and Fisheries, Volume 1., Blackwell, London, pp. 341-358.
    • Mora, Camilo, and Peter F. Sale, 2002. Are populations of coral reef fish open or closed? Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 17: 422-428.
    • Sale, P.F. (ed.) 2002. Coral Reef Fishes. Dynamics and diversity in a complex ecosystem. Academic Press, San Diego, 549pp.
    • Sale, P.F. 2002. The science we need to develop for more effective management. In: Sale, P.F., (ed.) Coral Reef Fishes. Dynamics and diversity in a complex ecosystem. Academic Press, San Diego, pp. 361-376.
    • Sale, Peter F. 2002. The ecology of fishes on coral reefs: What has the last decade taught us? Fisheries Science 68 Suppl. 1: 113-118.
    • Fitzgerald, D.G., A.R. Dale, M.V. Thomas, and P.F. Sale, 2001. Application of otolith analyses to investigate broad size distributions of young yellow perch in temperate lakes. J. Fish Biol. 58: 248-263.
    • Levin, P.S., N. Tolimieri, M. Nicklin and P.F. Sale, 2000. Integrating individual behavior and population ecology: the potential for habitat-dependent population regulation in a reef fish. Behav. Ecol. 11: 565-571.
    • Sale, P.F., and N. Tolimieri, 2000. Density dependence at some time and place? Oecologia 124: 166-171.